The latest Happy Planet Index: Costa Rica tops the list, beating Western economies on sustainable wellbeing
WEAll revealed the latest rankings of the Happy Planet Index (HPI) today, which compare countries by how efficiently they are creating long, happy lives using our limited environmental resources.
The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is the leading global measure of ‘sustainable wellbeing’. It measures ‘efficiency’, using three indicators:
- Wellbeing – how satisfied people are with their lives (Gallup World Poll)
- Life Expectancy – how long people typically live (United Nations Development Programme)
- Ecological footprint – how large their environment impact is (Global Footprint Network)
The 2021 Happy Planet Index: Which countries are most ‘efficient’?
The top 10 countries by Happy Planet Index score are as follows:
- Costa Rica
Notably, Central and South America dominate the Happy Planet Index, with 8 of the top 10 highest ranking countries from the region. However, there has been a decline in wellbeing in several countries in South America, including Brazil.
Selected other countries:
11. New Zealand
14. United Kingdom
The full Happy Planet Index rankings are available to view at www.happyplanetindex.org.
How does your country measure up?
This year, the Happy Planet Index features an interactive website, where viewers can explore the data, make comparisons between countries and regions, and view trends over time, from 2006 to 2020. You can also download the data to make your own analyses!
There is also a new ‘Personal Happy Planet Index’ test to help users see what country they are most like based on their own lifestyles – and to reflect on how they can create their own “good life that doesn’t cost the Earth.
How is the Happy Planet Index different?
Unlike other indices, such as the Quality of Life Index or World Happiness Report, the Happy Planet Index does not rank countries in terms of quality of life or happiness. Instead, it looks at which countries are best at using minimal ‘inputs’ of natural resources to create the maximum possible ‘outputs’ of long, happy lives – thus delivering truly “sustainable wellbeing”.
Rankings serve as a compass pointing in the overall direction in which societies should be travelling – towards higher wellbeing lifestyles with lower ecological footprints.
The Happy Planet Index does not consider societies truly successful if they deliver “good lives” which use more resources than the earth can support OR if they consume within the Earth’s limits, but have very low levels of wellbeing or life expectancy.
Promoting human happiness doesn’t have to be at odds with creating a sustainable future.
The Happy Planet Index turns the old world order on its head by highlighting how high-income Western nations are often inefficient at creating wellbeing for their people.
Costa Rica has again been ranked in first place for a fourth time due to its commitment to health, education, and environmental protection. In contrast, the USA was placed as the lowest scoring G7 nation at 122nd place, ranking low on both wellbeing and ecological footprint.
Costa Rica has been ranked in first place for a fourth time due to its commitment to health, education, and environmental protection. According to the Happy Planet Index, Costa Rica has a more efficient economy than the USA.
- Costa Rica outperforms the USA (#122) on each of life expectancy, wellbeing, and environmental sustainability.
- Costa Rica’s GDP per capita is less than half that of the USA. Despite this, Costa Ricans have higher wellbeing, and on average live longer.
- Costa Rica’s per capita Ecological Footprint is just one third of the size of the USA’s.
Countries that rank highly on the Happy Planet Index show that it is possible to live long, happy lives with a much smaller ecological footprint than found in the highest-consuming nations.
Many nations achieve green lights in each of the individual components of the Happy Planet Index – meaning that these targets are genuinely attainable.
Stories from a ‘Happy Planet’?
Overall, the Happy Planet Index shows that we are still far from achieving sustainable wellbeing: only a third of nations (representing 38% of the global population) consume within environmental limits and no country scores successfully across the three goals of high life expectancy for all, high experienced wellbeing for all, and living within environmental limits.
Still, the Happy Planet Index rankings highlight many success stories that demonstrate the possibility of living good lives without costing the Earth – and we’re making progress towards this goal.
Environmental progress made in Western Europe – but more must be done.
- Switzerland jumps to 4th place out of 152 countries on the Happy Planet Index, becoming the top ranking European country on the Index – and the only one in the top 10.
- The UK rises to 14th place; now the highest scoring G7 country.
- Other Western European countries rank fairly well on the index: the Netherlands (#18), Germany (#29), Spain (#30), France (#31).
Mixed results among high-income countries.
- North America falls in the bottom third of rankings of 152 countries: USA (#122) is the lowest ranking G7 country; Canada (#105) and Australia (#88) are not much further ahead.
- In contrast, New Zealand is now in 11th place, becoming the second highest Western country in the rankings.
Trends in other world regions
- South Asia and the Middle East dropped in the rankings; India dropped to 128th place out of 152 countries due to significant decline in wellbeing since 2006, but also a rising ecological footprint.
- Sub-Saharan Africa’s scores are rising due to rapid increases in life expectancy.
The Impact of the Pandemic
Data from 2020 shows that despite the largest pandemic in living memory and a complete re-organisation of the world economy, people’s wellbeing had, at least in 2020, on average, remained surprisingly stable.
This demonstrates that our wellbeing is not inevitably linked to the fast-paced economic system that we have become used to – and suggests that it is possible to sustain good lives with a lower impact on the Earth.
To effectively address the climate crisis, positive changes we see on the Happy Planet Index need to be much more rapid. To do that, we need to rethink how our global economic system is designed. All signs point to a Wellbeing Economy.
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For further information or to speak to the founder of the Happy Planet Index, Nic Marks, please contact: Rabia Abrar at firstname.lastname@example.org